Since 1995, TIMSS has monitored trends in mathematics and science achievement every four years, at the fourth and eighth grades. TIMSS 2019 was the seventh such assessment, providing 24 years of trends. TIMSS 2019 began the transition to eAssessment, where countries could administer TIMSS 2019 in electronic or paper format.

TIMSS Advanced studies achievement in advanced mathematics and physics for students in their final year of secondary school. TIMSS Advanced was conducted in 1995, 2008, and 2015.